Many three-dimensional (3D) printing methods build up structures layer by layer, which causes a lamination layer between each discrete step. Continuous printing can be done from a fluid bed if a so-called dead layer is used to buffer between the solidified structure and pool of resin. However, printing speeds are limited by the heat buildup from the exothermic polymerization process, thus limiting the printing speed of the printed object. Walker et al. use a pumped, nonreactive fluorinated oil to act as the dead layer that removes heat during polymerization. This approach allows for both speedup and scale-up of the printing process.
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